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APA Citation Style Guide

This guide will support you in creating common citation formats in the APA (American Psychological Association) Style - 7th edition.

Quick tips

Determine what kind of material you are citing from the website

When determining whether to cite as a website (site) or a webpage (page), first ask yourself what kind of material you are using from the site: for example, is it a newspaper article, journal or magazine article, report or book chapter? If so, use the rules for citing those categories of works, not the website itself - the website will be noted in the link you include in your reference list entry.

For example, if you have a PDF document, it should include information about the publication that the article came from.

It's not unusual to have missing elements such as authors, dates, etc.

Authors and dates may be missing or difficult to determine.

  • Check the acknowledgements or About page of the site for its authors.
  • Groups, companies or organizations can also be used as authors; if the name of the corporate author is the same as the name of the website, you do not need to include the website name.
  • The last updated date may be used only if you know that the date refers specifically to the content you are citing.
  • Use n.d. if you do not know the date the material was published.
  • If you think the content of the webpage might change, include a retrieval date in your reference list entry. e.g., Retrieved April 15, 2020 from [URL]. This is the only time that you would include "Retrieved" with your URL.

(APA, 2020, pp. 350-351)

Refer to APA's Missing Reference Information page for a comprehensive table with information on how to address missing elements. 

Webpage with group or corporate author

When the group author and the site name (aka organization responsible for the site) are the same, omit the site name from the citation before the URL. If different, list the site name between the website title and the URL.


Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies. (n.d.). Governance.

Parenthetical in-text citation: (Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies, n.d.)

Narrative in-text citation: Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies (n.d.)

(APA, 2020, p. 351)

Webpage with individual author


Cavanagh, K., & Kornya, M. (2018, April 25). Heart disease in cats. Canadian Veterinary Medical Association.

Parenthetical in-text citation: (Cavanagh & Kornya, 2018)

Narrative in-text citation: Cavanagh and Kornya (2018)

Webpage on a news site

Articles on these sites are only posted to the site, not within a specific issue of a print newspaper reproduced online or online news magazine (refer to the Articles page in this guide for examples of these).

You do not need to include the database name if you retrieved the full-text from a major academic database - for example, Globe and Mail Breaking News is available in Factiva.

EXAMPLE - News site, online only

Matassa-Fung, D. (2019, November 28). UBC Okanagan study finds dogs boost literacy in young students. Global News.

Parenthetical in-text citation: (Matassa-Fung, 2019)

Narrative in-text citation: Matassa-Fung (2019)

Some news sites may have both articles published in an overarching publication, and online-only news articles. For example, The Globe and Mail or Financial Times. The citation format is basically the same, but include the site name in title case: Author. (Date). Title. Site Name. URL.

EXAMPLE - News site, also publishes daily newspaper, specific section for online news

Nellis, S. (April 15, 2020). Apple releases budget-conscious $399 iPhone SE as coronavirus stalls economy. The Globe and Mail Report on Business.

Parenthetical in-text citation: (Nellis, 2020)

Narrative in-text citation: Nellis (2020)