Please consult the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for additional examples not listed on this page.
Personal communications refer to sources of information that cannot be recovered by the reader such as a book, article, video etc.
Examples of Personal Communications:
Citing Personal Communications In-Text:
"Because readers cannot retrieve the information in personal communications, personal communication are not included in the reference list: they are cited in the text only. Give the initial(s) and surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible" (APA, 2020, p. 260).
Parenthetical in-text citation: (G. Grinnell, personal communication, September 18, 2019)
Narrative in-text citation: G. Grinnell (personal communication, September 18, 2019)
(APA, 2020, p. 260)