You should always do your best to locate the original, primary source. But in some cases, such as when an original work is out of print, unavailable, or in another language, you may need to cite a secondary source.
In your Reference List you will list the secondary source you used. In the text, you'll include reference to both the original and the secondary source.
EXAMPLE - Reference list entry
Lacey, S., & Lomness, A. (2020). Better together: Assessing a leisure reading collection for an academic and public library partnership. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 46(1), Article 102023. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acalib.2019.03.011
Parenthetical in-text citation: (Diers & Simpson, 2012, as cited in Lacey & Lomness, 2020)
Narrative in-text citation: Diers & Simpson (2012, as cited in Lacey & Lomness, 2020)
(APA, 2020, p. 258)
If you have a journal article, report, book or book chapter, audiovisual material, or news or magazine article retrieved from a business database, use the APA rules for those sources. However, some formats from business sources are not covered under typical APA rules.
Do not include database names for reports obtained from common academic business databases such as Business Source (Ebsco Host) and ABI/Inform (ProQuest) - instead, use the template for reports. Do not include a retrieval link.
Do provide the database name where the database is not one usually found in academic institutions, or that primarily has proprietary content, such as IBISWorld, BCC Research, Bloomberg, Passport.
(APA, 2020, p. 297. See also Databases with Original, Proprietary Content)
Include a retrieval date when the content changes over time, and the archived content is not made available (APA, 2020, p. 290).
EXAMPLE - SWOT analysis by Marketline, from Business Source Ultimate database
Marketline. (2020, April 4). Apple Inc.: Company profile.
Parenthetical in-text citation: (Marketline, 2020)
Narrative in-text citation: Marketline (2020)
EXAMPLE - Industry report from IBISWorld database
McGrath, S. (2019, November). Software publishing in Canada: Industry report 51121CA. IBISWorld. Retrieved June 23, 2020 from https://ibisworld.com
Parenthetical in-text citation: (McGrath, 2019)
Narrative in-text citation: McGrath (2019)
EXAMPLE - Market research report from BCC Research database
McWilliams, A. (2019, November). Bionics: Technologies and global markets (Report No. HLC196B). BCC Research. Retrieved June 29, 2020 from https://www.bccresearch.com
Parenthetical in-text citation: (McWilliams, 2019)
Narrative in-text citation: McWilliams (2019)
Check the below guide for examples from more business databases. Contact a business librarian for help with citing business sources.
EXAMPLE - Published conference paper
Warkentin, D., Woodworth, M., Hancock, J. T., & Cormier, N. (2010, February 6-10). Warrants and deception in computer mediated communication [Paper presentation]. Proceedings of the 2010 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Savannah, GA, United States. https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/1718918.1718922
Parenthetical in-text citation: (Warkentin et al., 2010)
Narrative in-text citation: Warkentin et al. (2010)
EXAMPLE - Poster presentation
Crema, L. & Savage, S. (2019, May 2). Open textbook and OER project [Poster presentation]. Celebrate Learning Week, Vancouver, BC, Canada. https://tlef.ubc.ca/files/2019/05/LIBR_Leonora_Crema.png
Parenthetical in-text citation: (Crema & Savage, 2010)
Narrative in-text citation: Crema and Savage (2010)
(APA, 2020, p. 332-333)
Only list the year of most recent publication or update. Do not include the month and date of publication.
EXAMPLE - figshare
Newbury, R., & Hodges, K. (2018). Newbury and Hodges bobcat diet data.xlsx [Data set]. figshare. https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/general_format.html
Parenthetical in-text citation: (Newbury & Hodges, 2018)
Narrative in-text citation: Newbury and Hodges (2018)
EXAMPLE - Dryad
Garrick, R. C., Kajdacsi, B., Russello, M. A., Benavides, E., Hyseni, C., Gibbs, J. P., Tapia, W., & Caccone, A. (2015). Data from: Naturally rare versus newly rare: Demographic inferences on two timescales inform conservation of Galápagos giant tortoises [Data set]. Dryad. https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.7h8q2
Parenthetical in-text citation: (Garrick et al., 2015)
Narrative in-text citation: Garrick et al. (2015)
Because the OSF platform allows for consistent updates, always include a retrieval date before the DOI link.
EXAMPLE - Open Science Framework (OSF)
Pither, J., & Pickles, B. J. (2020). Below-ground biotic interactions moderated the postglacial range dynamics of trees [Data set]. OSF. Retrieved April 17, 2020, from https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/VUHE8
Parenthetical in-text citation: (Pither & Pickles, 2020)
Narrative in-text citation: Pither and Pickles (2020)
EXAMPLE - Scholar's Portal Dataverse
French, L., & Pavlidis, P. (2019). Replication data for: Relationships between gene expression and brain wiring in the adult rodent brain (Version 1.0) [Data set]. Scholar's Portal Dataverse. https://doi.org/10.5683/SP2/JTZK3E
Parenthetical in-text citation: (French & Pavlidis, 2019)
Narrative in-text citation: French and Pavlidis (2019)
Narrative in-text citation: Garrick et al. (2015)
EXAMPLE - Statistics Canada
Statistics Canada. (2019). Table 13-10-0096-05 Life satisfaction, satisfied or very satisfied, by age group [Data table]. https://www.doi.org/10.25318/1310009605-eng
Note: include the table number before the title.
Parenthetical in-text citation: (Statistics Canada, 2019)
Narrative in-text citation: Statistics Canada (2019)
Citations for dissertations and theses reorganize elements depending on whether they are published or unpublished.
(APA, 2020, pp. 333-334)
EXAMPLE - Published doctoral dissertation retrieved from archive
Wang, X. (2019). New chelators for radiopharmaceutical chemistry [Doctoral dissertation, University of British Columbia]. Open Collections. http://hdl.handle.net/2429/69977
Parenthetical in-text citation: (Wang, 2019)
Narrative in-text citation: Wang (2019)
EXAMPLE - Published master's thesis from database
Ferguson, J. (2010). Queer Japanese cinema: A rich and diverse cultural history's challenge to hegemonic ideologies of gender and sexuality (Publication No. MR82331) [Master's thesis, University of British Columbia]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
Parenthetical in-text citation: (Ferguson, 2010)
Narrative in-text citation: Ferguson (2010)
Reports and gray literature include many types of documents, such as:
For reports, include a report number if available, in brackets after the title of the report. The title of the report should be italicized, the report number should not. Title of report (Report No. 123).
For gray literature, include the type of document as a description in square brackets. Title of document [Description].
Reports and gray literature may be written by individuals, or by groups such as governments or government agencies, corporations/organizations, committees, or associations.
Include a publisher, unless the publisher is the same as the author.
(APA, 2020, p. 329)
The below are selected examples. More examples can be found in the APA's Publication Manual on pages 329-331.
EXAMPLE - Annual report
BC Cancer. (2018). 2018 BC Cancer research annual report. Provincial Health Services Authority. http://www.bccancer.bc.ca/about-site/Documents/BCCancerResearch-AnnualReport2018.pdf
Parenthetical in-text citation: (BC Cancer, 2018)
Narrative in-text citation: BC Cancer (2018)
EXAMPLE - Code of ethics
Canadian Nurses Association. (2017). Code of ethics for registered nurses. https://www.cna-aiic.ca/-/media/cna/page-content/pdf-en/code-of-ethics-2017-edition-secure-interactive.pdf
Parenthetical in-text citation: (Canadian Nurses Association, 2017)
Narrative in-text citation: Canadian Nurses Association (2017)
EXAMPLE - Government agency report
BC Housing. (2017). A scan of leading practices in affordable housing. https://www.bchousing.org/publications/Leading-Practices-Affordable-Housing.pdf
Parenthetical in-text citation: (BC Housing, 2017)
Narrative in-text citation: BC Housing (2017)
EXAMPLE - Policy brief
Rural Evidence Review. (2019). Citizen-patient-community participation in health care planning, decision-making and delivery through rural health councils [Policy brief]. University of British Columbia Centre for Rural Health Research. https://med-fom-crhr.sites.olt.ubc.ca/files/2019/09/RER-Policy-Brief-Community-Health-Boards-September-2019-V2.pdf
Parenthetical in-text citation: (Rural Evidence Review, 2019)
Narrative in-text citation: Rural Evidence Review (2019)
EXAMPLE - Press release
UBC Okanagan News. (2020, April 16). UBCO teams up with community partners to design medical PPE [Press release]. University of British Columbia. https://news.ok.ubc.ca/2020/04/16/ubco-teams-up-with-community-partners-to-design-medical-ppe/
Parenthetical in-text citation: (UBC Okanagan News, 2020)
Narrative in-text citation: UBC Okanagan News (2020)
Organization. (year). Title of the standard (Standard No. 1234). https://xxxxx OR database.
Canadian Standards Association. (2019). Canadian highway bridge design code (CAN/CSA Standard No. S6-19). Techstreet.
Parenthetical in-text citation, first time cited: Canadian Standards Association [CSA], 2019)
Subsequent in-text parenthetical citations: (CSA, 2019)
Narrative in-text citation, first time cited: Canadian Standards Association (CSA) (2019)
Subsequent in-text narrative citations: CSA (2019)
For more examples, please consult the APA Style Blog entry on ISO Standard References: https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/examples/iso-standard-references