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APA Citation Style Guide

This guide will support you in creating common citation formats in the APA (American Psychological Association) Style - 7th edition.

Quick tips

The author that is listed in a citation will depend on the media type that is being cited (partial reproduction from APA, 2020, p. 341). 

Media type Include as the author
Film Director
TV series episode Writer and director of episode
Podcast episode Host of episode
Modern music album or song Recording artist
Artwork Artist
Online streaming video Person or group who uploaded the video
Photograph Photographer

Include the author type in brackets following the author(s) name(s) - e.g. Tarantino, Q. (Director). - (APA, 2020, p. 342).

Include the type of media in square brackets following the title of the work - e.g. Title of work [Film]. - (APA, 2020, p. 342). 

Film or video


Wilson, S. (Director). (1985). My American cousin [Film]. Twentieth Century Fox.

Parenthetical in-text citation: (Wilson, 1985)

Narrative in-text citation: Wilson (1985)

EXAMPLE - Streaming (library collection)

Williams, A. (Director). (2015). Pass system [Film]. McIntyre Media.

Parenthetical in-text citation: (Williams, 2015)

Narrative in-text citation: Williams (2015)

EXAMPLE - Streaming (Netflix)

Nixon, R., & Stevens, F. (Directors). (2014). Mission blue [Film]. Netflix.

Parenthetical in-text citation: (Nixon & Stevens, 2014)

Narrative in-text citation: Nixon and Stevens (2014)

(APA, 2020, pp. 342-343)

TED Talk

Depending on where the TED Talk has been viewed, the author will differ. If you retrieve it from the TED website, the author is the speaker. If you retrieve it from YouTube, the author is the YouTube account name that uploaded the title (APA, 2020, p. 344).

EXAMPLE - TED Talk on TED website

Croft, D. (2018, December). Inside the killer whale matriarchy [Video]. TED-Ed.

Parenthetical in-text citation: (Croft 2018)

Narrative in-text citation: Croft (2018)

EXAMPLE - TED Talk on YouTube

TEDx Talks. (2018, May 31). Climate change is a social justice issue | Adriana Laurent | TEDxUBC [Video]. YouTube.

Parenthetical in-text citation: (TEDx Talks, 2018)

Narrative in-text citation: TEDx Talks (2018)

(APA, 2020, pp. 343-344)

YouTube video

EXAMPLE - Entire video

UBC Okanagan. (2019, October 9). The importance of Inuit Knowledge for environmental assessment [Video]. YouTube.

Parenthetical in-text citation: (UBC Okanagan, 2019)

Narrative in-text citation: UBC Okanagan (2019)

(APA, 2020, p. 344)

If you are quoting a section of a YouTube video in your paper, include the timestamp for the beginning of the quote with your in-text citation only, do not include in your reference list citation.

EXAMPLE - Quote from a video, requiring a timestamp

UBC Prospective Undergraduates. (2020, March 12). UBC future global leaders - Kate Theriault [Video]. YouTube.

Parenthetical in-text citation: (UBC Prospective Undergraduates, 2020, 1:40)

Narrative in-text citation: UBC Prospective Undergraduates (2020, 1:40)

(APA, 2020, p. 274)

Podcast episode


Walker, C. (2018, April 2). Cleo's letters (Season 2, Episode 10) [Audio podcast episode]. In Missing & murdered: Finding Cleo. CBC.

Parenthetical in-text citation: (Walker, 2018)

Narrative in-text citation: Walker (2018)

**NOTE: If downloading the episode from an app, the URL will be removed.

(APA, 2020, p. 345)

Artwork on a museum website


Ashoona, S. (2017). Untitled from The Polar World [Drawing]. The Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Parenthetical in-text citation: (Ashoona, 2017)

Narrative in-text citation: Ashoona (2017)

(APA, 2020, p. 346)



Gowen Sutton Company. (1928). Chinatown, Vancouver, B.C. [Photograph]. Open Collections.

Parenthetical in-text citation: (Gowen Sutton Company, 1928)

Narrative in-text citation: Gowen Sutton Company (1928)

(APA, 2020, p. 347)


EXAMPLE - Static

amcmilla. (2020, March 3). BC Wildfire Service - organizational overview 2020 [Map]. BC Wildfire Service.

Parenthetical in-text citation: (amcmilla, 2020)

Narrative in-text citation: amcmilla (2020)

EXAMPLE - Dynamic

Google. (n.d.). [Google Maps directions for driving from UBC Point Grey Campus, Vancouver, BC to UBC Okanagan Campus, Kelowna, BC]. Retrieved April 17, 2020 from 

Note: a link shortener may be used for long and complex URLs (APA, 2020, p. 300).

Parenthetical in-text citation: (Google, n.d.)

Narrative in-text citation: Google (n.d.)

(APA, 2020, p. 347)


Webinars are cited in this way only if they are recorded. If they are not recorded, refer to the personal communications example (APA, 2020, p. 344).

EXAMPLE - Recorded webinar on YouTube

UBC Okanagan. (2021, January). Science and systemic racism, Indigenous perspectives [Webinar]. YouTube.

Parenthetical in-text citation: (UBC Okanagan, 2021)

Narrative in-text citation: UBC Okanagan (2021)