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APA Citation Style Guide

This guide will support you in creating common citation formats in the APA (American Psychological Association) Style - 7th edition.

Encyclopedia article

"When a stable or archived version of the work is cited ..., a retrieval date is not needed" (APA, 2020, p. 324).

EXAMPLE - Individual author(s), with DOI

Eberhardt, E., & Afshin, A. (2018). Hydraulic fracturing. In P. Bobrowsky & B. Marker (Eds.), Encyclopedia of engineering geology (pp. 1-6). Springer.

Parenthetical in-text citation: (Eberhardt & Afshin, 2018)

Narrative in-text citation: Eberhardt and Afshin (2018)

(APA, 2020, p. 328)

Wikipedia article

The URL in your citation must point readers to the version of the Wikipedia article that you consulted. To find the link to the appropriate archived version of the article, go to the article and select "View History."


2019–20 Coronavirus outbreak. (2020, February 20). In Wikipedia.

Parenthetical in-text citation: ("2019-20 Coronavirus outbreak," 2020)

Narrative in-text citation: "2019-20 Coronavirus outbreak" (2020)

(APA, 2020, p. 329)

Dictionary or thesaurus

EXAMPLE - Entire print dictionary with author

Colman, A. W. (2015). A dictionary of psychology. Oxford University Press.

Parenthetical in-text citation: (Colman, 2015)

Narrative in-text citation: Colman (2015)

(APA, 2020, p. 324)

EXAMPLE - Dictionary online entry that is routinely updated

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.) Library. In dictionary. Retrieved April 16, 2020, from

Parenthetical in-text citation: (Merriam-Webster, n.d.)

Narrative in-text citation: Merriam-Webster (n.d.)

(APA, 2020, p. 328)

Diagnostic manuals

"When the author and publisher are the same, omit the publisher from the source" (APA, 2020, p. 324).

You may see examples where authors include the title of the diagnostic manual and its corresponding edition number, but this is not required. For further examples of how to cite using the title and edition number in-text, consult the APA's Publication Manual (2020, p. 324).


American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.).

Parenthetical in-text citation: (American Psychiatric Association, 2013)

Narrative in-text citation: American Psychiatric Association (2013)

(APA, 2020, p. 324; APA, n.d.,