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APA Citation Style Guide

This guide will support you in creating common citation formats in the APA (American Psychological Association) Style - 7th edition.

Quick tips

"Capitalize the title of a periodical using the title case (see Section 6.17), italicize it, and place a comma (not italicized) after it (APA, 2020, p. 294)."

Include a DOI if provided. If a DOI is not available, include a permanent URL if provided. If the article was retrieved from a commonly accessible database, do not include the URL (APA, 2020, p. 317). 

"Links should be live if the work is to be published or read online (APA, 2020, p. 299)." This includes DOI's and URL's.

Journal article with a DOI (1-2 authors)

List all authors in reference list and in-text citations.

EXAMPLE

Janmaat, J., & Rahimova, N. (2018). Managing drought risk in the Okanagan: A roll for dry-year option contracts? Canadian Public Policy, 44(2), 112-125. https://doi.org/10.3138/cpp.2017-003

Parenthetical in-text citation: (Janmaat & Rahimova, 2018)

Narrative in-text citation: Janmaat and Rahimova (2018)

(APA, 2020, p. 317)

Journal article with a DOI (3-20 authors)

List all authors in the reference list and only first author in the in-text citations.

EXAMPLE

Mei, Y., Yu, K., Lo, J. C. Y., Takeuchi, L. E., Hadjesfandiari, N., Yazdani-Ahmadabadi, H., Brooks, D. E., Lange, D., & Kizhakkedathu, J. N. (2018). Polymer-nanoparticle interaction as a design principle in the development of a durable ultrathin universal binary antibiofilm coating with long-term activity. ACS Nano, 12(12), 11881-11891. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.8b05512

Parenthetical in-text citation: (Mei et al., 2018)

Narrative in-text citation: Mei et al. (2018)

(APA, 2020, p. 317)

Journal article with a DOI (21+ authors)

List first 19 authors followed by an ellipsis and final author in reference list, and only first author in the in-text citations.

EXAMPLE

Oen, K., Guzman, J., Dufault, B., Tucker, L. B., Shiff, N. J., Watanabe Duffy, K., Lee, J. J. Y., Feldman, B. M., Berard, R. A., Dancey, P., Huber, A. M., Scuccimarri, R., Cabral, D. A., Morishita, K. A., Ramsey, S. E., Rosenberg, A. M., Boire, G., Benseler, S. M., Lang, B., ... Duffy, C. M. (2018). Health-related quality of life in an inception cohort of children with juvenile idopathic arthritis: A longitudinal analysis. Arthritis Care & Research, 70(1), 134-144. https://doi.org/10.1002/acr.23236

Parenthetical in-text citation: (Oen et al., 2018)

Narrative in-text citation: Oen et al. (2018)

(APA, 2020, p. 317)

Journal article with no DOI and retrieved from a common research database

Omit the hyperlink for articles with no DOI or permanent URL, and are retrieved from a common research database.

EXAMPLE

Neumann, K. L.(2019). Narrating a story of a community with Google Tour Creator. Voices from the Middle, 27(2), 15-24.

Parenthetical in-text citation: (Neumann, 2019)

Narrative in-text citation: Neumann (2019)

(APA, 2020, p. 317)

Journal article with an article number

EXAMPLE

Pither, J., Botta, A., Malty, C., & Ghosh, S. (2017). Analysis using national databases reveals a positive association between dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids with TV watching and diabetes in European females. PLoS ONE, 12(3), e0173084. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0173084

Parenthetical in-text citation: (Pither et al., 2017)

Narrative in-text citation: Pither et al. (2017)

(APA, 2020, p. 318)

Magazine article

EXAMPLE

Trilling, L. (1949, June 11). Orwell on the future. The New Yorker. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/1949/06/18/orwell-on-the-future

Parenthetical in-text citation: (Trilling, 1949)

Narrative in-text citation: Trilling (1949)

(APA, 2020, p. 320)

Newspaper article (with print edition)

The following example is only for newspaper that also have print versions of the content. For articles posted to news websites that only publish content online, please see the Webpages & News Sites tab of this guide.

EXAMPLE

Bains, C. (2019, June 13). Study shows low levels of THC in marijuana don't increase car crashes. The Globe and Mail. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/canada/article-study-shows-low-levels-of-thc-in-marijuana-dont-increase-car-crashes/

Parenthetical in-text citation: (Bains, 2019)

Narrative in-text citation: Bains (2019)

(APA, 2020, p. 320)

Editorial (in journal)

Use the same citation format as the item in which the editorial was published (i.e. use a journal article style if the editorial was published in a journal).

EXAMPLE

Saewyc, E. (2017). A global perspective on gender roles and identity [Editorial]. Journal of Adolescent Health Care, 4(Suppl. 4), S1-S2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.07.010

Parenthetical in-text citation: (Saewyc, 2017)

Narrative in-text citation: Saewyc (2017)

(APA, 2020, pp. 320-321)