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APA Citation Style Guide

This guide will support you in creating common citation formats in the APA (American Psychological Association) Style - 7th edition.

Other examples

Please consult the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for additional examples not listed on this page, including:

  • Kindle (etc.) e-books
  • Translated or foreign language books
  • Anthologies
  • Conference sessions and poster presentations
  • Conference symposium contributions

Quick tips

All books

  • "For works that stand alone (e.g., books, reports, webpages and websites), italicize the title, and capitalize it using sentence case (see Section 6.17)."
  • Additional information such as edition, volume number should be in brackets directly following the title, not separated by a period or comma, and not italicized.
    (APA, 2020, p. 291)

E-books

  • Include a DOI if provided. If a DOI is not available, include a permanent URL, if provided.
    • DOI: Digital Object Identifier. A string of letters and numbers that specifies a unique object. DOIs begin with 10 (e.g. 10.1093/rheumatology/key279)
    • add http://dx.doi.org to make a live link (e.g. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/key27‚Äč)
  • If the e-book was retrieved from a commonly accessible database (e.g. ProQuest,  EBSCO, Science Direct, Elsevier etc.) do not include the URL (APA, 2020, p. 321). 
  • "Links should be live if the work is to be published or read online." (APA, 2020, p. 299). This includes DOIs and URLs.

Numbers not included in citations

  • Call Number: Unique alphanumeric number, often on the spine of a book. Classifies books by topic, e.g. QA75 for computer science.
  • ISBN: International Standard Book Number. Unique fifteen digit number, usually with a barcode. Printed in book, often on back cover.
  • Barcode Number: Unique number, at UBC Library begins with 3 9424. On a sticker on the front cover of a book.

Book: 1-2 authors; with DOI, print or e-book edition

EXAMPLE

Mukherjee, K. (2019). Quality control and evaluation of herbal drugs: Evaluating natural products and traditional medicine. Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/C2016-0-04232-8

Parenthetical in-text citation: (Mukherjee, 2019)

Narrative in-text citation: Mukherjee (2019)

(APA, 2020, p. 321)

Book: Authored book, three or more authors, print or e-book edition, no DOI

If the book is an e-book from an academic research database, there is no need to add a URL, even when no DOI is present. Follow the rules outlined in 9.30 (APA, 2020, pp. 296-297, 299).

EXAMPLE

Dhamoon, R., Bhandar, D., Mawani, R., & Bains, S. K. (2019). Unmooring the Komagata Maru: Charting colonial trajectories. UBC Press.

Parenthetical in-text citation: (Dhamoon et al., 2018)

Narrative in-text citation: Dhamoon et al. (2018)

(APA, 2020, p. 321)

Book: Authored book, with DOI (print version or from most online academic research databases)

Include the DOI for the book if retrieved as an e-book from an academic research database. Follow the rules outlined in 9.30 (APA, 2020, pp. 296-297).

EXAMPLE

Glismann, P. J. (2017). Systems engineering and safety: Building the bridge (1st ed.). CRC Press. https://doi.org/10.1201/b14815

Parenthetical in-text citation: (Glismann, 2017)

Narrative in-text citation: Glismann (2017)

(APA, 2020, p. 326)

Book: Group author

EXAMPLE

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596

Parenthetical in-text citation: (American Psychological Association, 2020)

Narrative in-text citation: American Psychological Association (2020)

Republished book

Include the name(s) of the editor(s) and/or translator(s) if the new version differs from the original. Include their name(s) in brackets after the title.

EXAMPLE

Blount, T. (1874). Tenures of land & customs of manors (W. Carew Hazlitt, Ed.). Reeves and Turner. (Original work published 1679)

Parenthetical in-text citation: (Blount, 1679/1874)

Narrative in-text citation: Blount (1679/1874)

(APA, 2020, p. 323)

Book chapter: Edited book, authored chapters, no DOI (print or e-book version)

Include the URL for the book if retrieved as an e-book from an academic research database, when no DOI is present. Follow the rules outlined in 9.30 (APA, 2020, pp. 296-297).

EXAMPLE

Lautard, T., & Guppy, N. (1999). Revisiting the vertical mosaic: Occupational stratification among Canadian ethnic groups. In P. Li (Ed.), Race and ethnic relations in Canada (2nd ed., pp. 219-253). Oxford University Press.

Parenthetical in-text citation: (Lautard & Guppy, 1999)

Narrative in-text citation: Lautard and Guppy (1999)

(APA, 2020, p. 326)