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Xwi7xwa - Distance Research

This guide supports researchers working with Indigenous topics. It also supports faculty who are teaching remotely.

Getting Started

Below you will find articles and databases specific to Languages. As we progressively move to an online environment X̱wi7x̱wa is moving away from print and physical materials. For more research guides please refer to the related guides on the left side of this page.

Search Tip

When searching for information using the UBC Library Catalogue, Summon, or databases, remember that names of Indigenous nations and languages often change over time and spellings may vary. You may need to conduct multiple searches using a variety of search terms to find information about a particular Indigenous nation or language.

Changes Over Time

  • Names of languages change over time and also vary by different groups and academic disciplines.
    For example: Dane-zaa Záágéʔ is also called the Beaver language.
    For example: Dakelh is also called the Carrier language.
  • Names of dialects also vary.
    For example: Plains Cree is also known as the Y-dialect or Nehiyawewin.

Spelling Variations

  • Consider spelling variations, especially for languages that have had multiple (or no) written systems.
  • Classification systems in libraries and archives might use different spellings and ordering systems.
    For example: Stó:lō, Stó:lô, Stó:lõ, Stahlo, Staulo, Stolo, Stohlo, Sto:lo (group of people)
    For example: Tsuut’ina, Sarcee, Sarsi, Tsuu T’ina, Tsu T’ina, Tsúùtínà (language)

The First Peoples' Language Map of British Columbia maintains a First Nations Index, which includes current and other names of nations, and a Language Index, which includes current and other names of languages.


The Métis language is called Michif (also Mitchif, Mechif, Michif-Cree, Métif, Métchif, French Cree). Michif is blend of Cree and French; the verbs are taken from Cree, while the nouns are taken from French.

For information on Michif, check out A Language of Our Own [e-book] by Peter Bakker (1997).

Online Michif Resources


Language Learning