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Xwi7xwa - Distance Research

This guide supports researchers working with Indigenous topics. It also supports faculty who are teaching remotely.

Featured Resource

Citing your sources essentially means you are giving credit to someone for their work, in other words you are respectfully acknowledging where the information you are using comes from. There are different citation styles, essentially this means that there are different ways to write out how we acknowledge our sources. Academic integrity essentially refers to the standards and expectations people follow regarding citations and plagiarism as part of the academic community. When we do not properly cite our sources we are participating in plagiarism.

Here you can find resources on different citation styles, how to cite an Elder, copyright, and academic integrity.

Citing Basics

Citation Basics:

Citation Management Tools:

Citation Styles

Indigenous Citation and Style Guides

Citing Elders

The formal MLA and APA style do not have a format for Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers. 

Norquest College has developed the following citation styles in the spirit of wahkôhtowin and reconciliation, and we thank them for sharing their template.

APA Style

Unlike other personal communications, Elders and Knowledge Keepers should be cited in-text and in the reference list.

In Text:

The in-text citation format should follow the same guidelines as noted in the paraphrase and direct quote tabs: 

Delores Cardinal described the nature of the... (2004). OR The nature of the place was... (Cardinal, 2004).

Reference:

The citation format for the reference list follows the following format:

Last name, First initial., Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. Where they live if applicable. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. personal communication. Month Date, Year.

For example: Cardinal, D., Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching. personal communication. April 4, 2004.

MLA Style

Unlike most other personal communications, Elders and Knowledge Keepers should be cited in-text and in the reference list.

In text:

The in-text citation format should be formatted as:

Delores Cardinal described the nature of the... OR The nature of the place was... (Cardinal).

Reference Citation:

The citation format for the reference list follows the following format:

Last name, First name., Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. City/Community they live in if applicable. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. Date Month Year. 

For Example: Cardinal, Delores., Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching. 4 April 2004.

Note: If you would like to approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, remember to follow protocol or if you are unsure what their protocol is, please ask them ahead of time.

 

Academic Integrity

"Academic integrity means practicing honesty and honour when engaging with your academics. Learn about citation, being responsible for your work, crediting the work of others, and concrete steps to ensuring academic integrity" by visiting UBC's Academic Integrity & Citations. 

​Reverse Citation Search

Indigenous scholars often cite Indigenous research. For example, Indigenous scholars across many disciplines cite the book Decolonizing Methodologies by Linda Tuhiwai Smith. 

Google Scholar allows you to do a reverse citation search, which allows you to find resources that cite a specified publication.

1. Open Google Scholar and find the title you want to search, then click "cited by".

 

  2. Select "Search within citing articles" and try performing a keyword search to narrow your results.

 

3. Look for author self-identification or biographies which identify authors as Indigenous within articles.