Citing your sources essentially means you are giving credit to someone for their work, in other words you are respectfully acknowledging where the information you are using comes from. There are different citation styles, essentially this means that there are different ways to write out how we acknowledge our sources. Academic integrity essentially refers to the standards and expectations people follow regarding citations and plagiarism as part of the academic community. When we do not properly cite our sources we are participating in plagiarism.
Here you can find resources on different citation styles, how to cite an Elder, copyright, and academic integrity.
Citation Management Tools:
The official MLA and APA citation style guides do not have guidelines for citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers.
NorQuest College has developed the following templates for citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers (CC BY-NC 4.0) in the spirit of wahkôhtowin and reconciliation, and we thank them for sharing their template.
For information on the development of these templates and how to use them in practice, please see:
Lorisia MacLeod. "More Than Personal Communication: Templates for Citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers." KULA: Knowledge Creation, Dissemination, and Preservation Studies 5, no. 1 (2021). https://doi.org/10.18357/kula.135
Unlike other personal communications, Elders and Knowledge Keepers should be cited in-text and in the References list.
The in-text citation should follow APA guidelines for formatting in-text citations for paraphrasing and direct quotes. Include the Elder or Knowledge Keeper's last name and the year of communication. For example:
Delores Cardinal described the nature of the... (2004).
The nature of the place was... (Cardinal, 2004).
Corresponding References list entry format:
Last name, First initial., Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. Where they live if applicable. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. personal communication. Month Date, Year.
For example: Cardinal, D., Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching. personal communication. April 4, 2004.
Unlike most other personal communications, Elders and Knowledge Keepers should be cited in-text and in the Works Cited list.
The in-text citation should follow MLA guidelines for formatting in-text citations for paraphrasing and direct quotes. Include the Elder or Knowledge Keeper's last name. For example:
Delores Cardinal described the nature of the...
The nature of the place was... (Cardinal).
Corresponding Works Cited list entry:
Last name, First name., Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. City/Community they live in if applicable. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. Date Month Year.
For Example: Cardinal, Delores., Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching. 4 April 2004.
Note: If you would like to approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings, remember to follow protocol or if you are unsure what their protocol is, please ask them ahead of time.
Chicago Manual of Style
Work is underway to develop guidelines for citing Elders and Knowledge Keepers with Chicago Manual of Style. Please check back for updates.
"Academic integrity means practicing honesty and honour when engaging with your academics. Learn about citation, being responsible for your work, crediting the work of others, and concrete steps to ensuring academic integrity" by visiting UBC's Academic Integrity & Citations.
Indigenous scholars often cite Indigenous research. For example, Indigenous scholars across many disciplines cite the book Decolonizing Methodologies by Linda Tuhiwai Smith.
Google Scholar allows you to do a reverse citation search, which allows you to find resources that cite a specified publication.
1. Open Google Scholar and find the title you want to search, then click "cited by".
2. Select "Search within citing articles" and try performing a keyword search to narrow your results.
3. Look for author self-identification or biographies which identify authors as Indigenous within articles.