Below are links to maps of the Residential School System in Canada, as well as maps from the survivors of the Sixties Scoop. For a list of the 699 schools click here.
Because this information could be triggering for people, we have also provided lines to access emotional & well-being help on each topic. Please contact the 24-Hour Residential School Crisis Line at 1-866-925-4419 or the Hope for Wellness Help Line at 1-855-242-3310 or at hopeforwellness.ca if you require emotional support.
About: provides convenient and expert chat reference help to post-secondary students, faculty, and researchers across BC and the Yukon. For assistance click here.
Below you will find articles and databases specific to History. As we progressively move to an online environment X̱wi7x̱wa is moving away from print and physical materials. For more research guidance please refer to the related guides to the left of this page.
To understand treaties (both historical and modern/comprehensive) it is important to understand the nation-to-nation relationships built between Canada and First Nations over time, as well as treaty-making processes that pre-date colonization. The following resources contribute to this understanding:
"From the eighteenth to the early twentieth centuries, Crown representatives and leaders of Aboriginal communities signed treaties throughout most of Canada in an effort to resolve issues of outstanding Aboriginal title. [...] Crown representatives interpreted these treaties as a “blanket extinguishment” of Aboriginal title. However, many have argued that at the time the treaties were negotiated, Aboriginal signatories did not understand the treaties as limiting or extinguishing their title." (From Indigenous Foundations).
The Métis people are a distinct nation with their own language, culture, and traditions. For information on Métis identity visit Indigenous Foundations. All Métis settlements in Canada are located in Alberta. See the following resources for more information: