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Xwi7xwa - Distance Research

This guide supports researchers working with Indigenous topics. It also supports faculty who are teaching remotely.

Getting Started

Below you will find articles and databases specific to History. As we progressively move to an online environment X̱wi7x̱wa is moving away from print and physical materials. For more research guidance please refer to the related guides to the left of this page.


Pre-Contact & Early Post-Contact

To understand treaties (both historical and modern/comprehensive) it is important to understand the nation-to-nation relationships built between Canada and First Nations over time, as well as treaty-making processes that pre-date colonization. The following resources contribute to this understanding:

Aboriginal Treaties

"From the eighteenth to the early twentieth centuries, Crown representatives and leaders of Aboriginal communities signed treaties throughout most of Canada in an effort to resolve issues of outstanding Aboriginal title. [...] Crown representatives interpreted these treaties as a “blanket extinguishment” of Aboriginal title. However, many have argued that at the time the treaties were negotiated, Aboriginal signatories did not understand the treaties as limiting or extinguishing their title." (From Indigenous Foundations).

Métis People in Canada

The Métis people are a distinct nation with their own language, culture, and traditions. For information on Métis identity visit Indigenous Foundations. All Métis settlements in Canada are located in Alberta. See the following resources for more information: