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MLA 9th Edition Citation Style Guide

Encyclopedia article with or without an author

EXAMPLE - without an author

"Baby Boomers." International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, edited by William A. Darity, Jr., vol. 1, 2nd ed., Gale, 2008, pp. 235-36.

Parenthetical in-text citation: ("Baby Boomers" 235)

Narrative in-text citation: The definition of "Baby Boomers" outlined in the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences describes ... (235). 

EXAMPLE - with an author

Parsa, Neeki, and Sabra L. Katz-Wise. "Gender Fluidity."  The SAGE Encyclopedia of Trans Studies, edited by Abbie E. Goldberg and Genny Beemyn, vol. 1, Sage Publications Inc., 2021, pp. 304-305.

Parenthetical in-text citation: (Parsa and Katz-Wise, 304)

Narrative in-text citation: Parsa and Katz-Wise define gender fluidity as ... (304-5).

Wikipedia article


"Marsha P. Johnson." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, 4 Aug. 2021, Wikimedia Foundation,

Parenthetical in-text citation: ("Marsha")

Narrative in-text citation: Marsha P. Johnson was a leader for gay rights in New York, and was one of the leaders of the Stonewall Riots ("Marsha"). 


EXAMPLE - Entire print dictionary with author

Colman, Andrew W. "Labyrinth." A Dictionary of Psychology, 4th ed., Oxford University Press, 2015.

Parenthetical in-text citation: (Colman)

Narrative in-text citation: Colman defined the term labyrinth as being as any mazelike structure. 

EXAMPLE - Dictionary without author

“Labyrinth.” Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, 

Parenthetical in-text citation: ("Labyrinth")

Narrative in-text citation: The term "Labyrinth" is defined as being composed of intricate passageways.