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HMKN 100: Lifetime Fitness & Health


In the same way that we would tell a friend what newspaper or from whom we heard a certain piece of information, when writing we need to identify where we got a particular piece of information, idea, or quote. Failure to give this credit in an academic context is called plagiarism and is understood as claiming responsibility for someone else's ideas and work. This is not looked upon very kindly.

However, beyond plagiarism, there are many reasons why citing properly is important. A few of these are that giving credit:

  • turns a single work into one piece of the dialog between all the researchers working on a similar topic, linking together ideas and furthering research;
  • demonstrates that we are familiar with the literature, and that we haven't made up our claims;
  • allows us, and others, to retrieve the articles and evidence used by an author to build their argument.

Citations are given in the body of the paper when we are referring to another work. They are also given as a bibliography at the end of our work, listing all works that were cited in the paper itself.

APA Guides

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the american psychological association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

American Psychological Association. (2012). APA style guide to electronic references (6th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

APA: Getting Started. Quick Reference from the UBC Library.

The Basics for Journal Articles

In text citations

Core components:

  • Author(s)
  • Date

Format options:

  • List the authors as part of your narrative;
  • Refer to the research and then add the authors parenthetically.


Yang, Scott, Mao, Tang, and Farmer (2014) concluded that there is minimal clinical significance to aerobic versus resistance exercise in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

A recent systematic review concluded that there is minimal clinical significance to aerobic versus resistance exercise in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (Yang, Scott, Mao, Tang, & Farmer, 2014).

Cheat Sheet:

# of Authors Example

(Yang, 2014)

2 (Yang & Scott, 2014)
3-5 First citation: (Yang, Scott & Mao, 2014)
Subsequent citations: (Yang et al., 2014)
6 or more

(Yang et al., 2014)

Reference List

Core components:

  • Author(s)
  • Date of publication
  • Article title
  • Journal name
  • Volume
  • Issue/page numbers


Note: What is and what is not italicized. There is not always an issue number.

  • Last Name, Initial (YYYY). Article title. Journal name, volume (issue), pp-pp. DOI/URL.
  • Last Name, Initial (YYYY). Article title. Journal name, volume, pp-pp. DOI/URL.


Issue number

  • Baltich, J., Emery, C. A., Whittaker, J. L., & Nigg, B. M. (2017). Running injuries in novice runners enrolled in different training interventions: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Scandinavian Journal Of Medicine & Science In Sports, 27(11), 1372-1383. doi:10.1111/sms.12743

No issues number

  • Tenforde, A. S., Ruder, M. C., Jamison, S. T., Singh, P. P., & Davis, I. S. (2018). Is symmetry of loading improved for injured runners during novice barefoot running?. Gait & Posture, 623, 17-320. doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2018.03.043