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HMKN 100: Lifetime Fitness & Health



Is barefoot running less likely to incur injuries than running in running shoes?

Identify the core elements
Population Intervention Comparison Outcome
Runners Barefoot Shoes Reduced risk of injury


Brainstorm Synonyms
Runners Barefoot Shoes Reduced risk of Injury
Joggers unshod shod injury

Boolean Searching


AND produces results with all search terms. Use AND to join different concepts. AND will narrow a search. e.g. barefoot AND shod will look for articles that contain both words.

OR produces results with either search term. Use OR to join synonyms. OR will expand a search: e.g. barefoot OR unshod will look for articles that contain either word.

Phrase searching

Use "quotation marks" to search for a phrase. "Running injuries" will look for the two words directly adjacent together. Running injuries will look for each word individually anywhere in the article.


Capturing more with truncation

Consider the forms of the word injury: injury, injuries, injured...

  • Ostermann, K., Ridpath, L., & Hanna, J. B. (2016). Self-Reported Minimalist Running Injury Incidence and Severity: A Pilot Study. The Journal Of The American Osteopathic Association, 116(8), 512-520. doi:10.7556/jaoa.2016.104
  • Baltich, J., Emery, C. A., Whittaker, J. L., & Nigg, B. M. (2017). Running injuries in novice runners enrolled in different training interventions: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Scandinavian Journal Of Medicine & Science In Sports, 27(11), 1372-1383. doi:10.1111/sms.12743
  • Tenforde, A. S., Ruder, M. C., Jamison, S. T., Singh, P. P., & Davis, I. S. (2018). Is symmetry of loading improved for injured runners during novice barefoot running?. Gait & Posture, 623, 17-320. doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2018.03.043

We can over this by searching for running injur*. The * looks for any number of characters. It will look not only for injury, but injuries, injured etc...

The Search

Bringing it all together
runners   Barefoot   Shoes   Reduced risk of Injury while Running
runn* or jogg* AND barefoot OR unshod AND shoes OR shod AND injur*