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Systematic and Scoping Reviews

Search Tools

Several search techniques are common to a variety of licensed databases - subject headings, truncation, Boolean operators, and limits. Depending on your topic, there may also be search filters available to apply to one or more databases.  See these Medline Ovid tutorials for an overview of different techniques.

Techniques to aid the process include using a table in Word or Excel to list the concepts in your research question.  This way you can keep track of potentially relevant subject headings and keywords that you discover when exploring scope notes and thesaurus trees. Another is to use the save search history in most databases to record your search and to set up email alerts for when new articles are found on your topic.

Many databases include a system of subject headings (which may also be called descriptors, or controlled vocabulary). These terms are added to articles by human indexers to make it easier to search for all the articles on a particular concept. Most other topical, or subject, databases have a system of subject headings, which can usually be found in the thesaurus section of a database. In Medline these are known as MeSH (Medical Subject Headings), in EMBASE as Emtree, and in CINAHL they are Headings.

For a thorough literature search, you should search each concept with both keywords and subject headings.

Some databases and grey literature sources only allow searching by keyword (aka free text or natural language). Useful techniques include truncation, wildcards, phrase searching, and proximity searching.

Database

Truncation

Wildcard:

0 or 1 character

Wildcard:

Exactly 1 character

Phrase

Proximity

OVID databases

 

*  or  $  or  :

Examples:
 

pharm$ will find:

pharmacy, pharmacist, pharmaceutical….

Child* will find:

children, childbirth, child-centred, childhood…

?

Examples:

flavo?r

P?ediatric

#

Example:
 

wom#n

Quotation marks only needed if there's a word like "and," "or" or "use" in your phrase:

Examples:

“Sensitivity and Specificity”

“Substance use disorder”

 adjn

(adj=adjacent and "n" is the number of words)

 

Example:

environment* adj3 health will find environment, environmental etc. within 3 words of health.

PubMed

*

Note: truncation stops automatic mapping to MeSH 

   

“your phrase”

Note: phrase searching stops automatic mapping to MeSH, and does not always find results

Proximity searching not available in PubMed 

EBSCO databases

 

*

 

#

Examples:

flavo#r

P#ediatric

?

Example:

wom?n

“your phrase”

Nn or Wn

(N= Near, W= Within and "n" is the number of words)

Example:
seat* n5 wheelchair will find seat or seating etc. within 5 words of wheelchair.

Web of Science

 

 

*

Web of Science allows left-sided truncation as well as right-sided.

Example: *statin will find:

atorvastatin, simvastatin, pravastatin…

$ for exactly 0-1 characters

* for 0-multiple characters

 

?

“your phrase”

NEAR/n

You can specify n number of words; or if you just type NEAR, the default range is within 15 words.

Proquest databases

*note: consider changing the drop-down next to the search box to "NOFT" instead of "anywhere" when searching these databases

*

*

for up to 5 characters in middle of word

? "your phrase"

NEAR/n (if you don't specify n, default is 4)

PRE/n (looks for words only in the order they are entered)

CAB Direct
*


or
Automatic Stemming

Use quotation marks "XXX" to turn off Auto-stemming

  ? "your phrase"

near/n

("n" is the number of words)

Boolean operators are useful for combining subject headings and keywords.

 

  • Example: Stroke AND balance finds articles with both these concepts
  • Example: Stroke OR CVA finds articles that include either or both concepts

NOT is another operator which will find one concept while excluding another. Use with caution because you may exclude relevant articles this way. See the document below for tips.

Most databases include various limiters. These usually qualify human characteristics such as gender, ethnicity or age or publication characteristics such as language, publication date, study design, or type of publication. 

Consult with a librarian about using limits in a systematic review search - it's easy to lose relevant articles when adding limits. Usually a search filter (aka hedge) is a better choice than using the default limits in a database. A search filter includes a mix of keywords and limiters.

Search Filters

Search filters are pre-tested strategies used to find evidence in databases. They are often used to locate a specific type of study, such as a randomized controlled trial or a qualitative study. Some search filters have been validated against a test set of records.

Search Automation Tools

Updating Searches

If a lot of time passes between running your search and completion of your review, you may need to run a search update. The link below has some helpful tips for updating searches in different databases.

Phrase Searching in Ovid Databases

In general, quotation marks are not needed in order to search for words as a phrase in Ovid databases. However, one exception is when a phrase contains the word "use," which is a command in Ovid. You'll need to put a phrase containing use, or the word use by itself, in quotes in order to avoid an error message. 

Also, if a phrase in Ovid includes one of these words: and, as, for, from, is, of, that, the, this, to, was, were

Ovid will ignore the word in the phrase. This may cause you to find many more results than intended, in particular if you're searching for an exact phrase. Solution - use truncation on that word in your phrase:

"treatment as* prevention"

"female to* male"

See the link below for more details.