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Knowledge Synthesis: Systematic, Scoping & Other Reviews

Critical Appraisal

Systematic reviews generally include quality assessment of included studies, while scoping reviews typically do not. Below are some selected critical appraisal tools.

Risk of Bias Assessment

Quality Assessment & Risk of Bias Tool Repository

Data Extraction

Data extraction is usually done with software, spreadsheets, or forms. The fields you opt to include will be built around your research question. Covidence, Excel, Google Forms, Qualtrics, or REDCap are tools you might consider using. Typically, 2 researchers independently extract data from each study. Piloting the form before use is important.