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Indigenous Citation Guide

Citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers in Chicago Notes-Bibliography

It is not explicit in the Chicago Manual of Style how to cite Indigenous Knowledge and Elders. The following is based on the Kwantlen Polytechnic University guide on Indigenous Studies and the section on Citing & References

This requires an in-text citation and an entry in the bibliography list.

Footnote:

1. First Name Last Name of Elder, Nation, Topic/subject of communication if appropriate, Personal communication, Territorial acknowledgment of where the information was shared, Month Date, Year.

Bibliography:

Last Name, First Name of Elder, Nation. Topic/subject of communication if appropriate. Personal communication. Territorial acknowledgment of where the information was shared. Month Date, Year.

Citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers in Chicago Author-Date

It is not explicit in the Chicago Manual of Style how to cite Indigenous Knowledge and Elders. The following is an adaptation of the personal communication format with the modification of both an in-text and a reference list entry. 

In-Text Parenthetical Citation:

(First Name Last Name, nature or format of communication, Month Day, Year)

Reference List Entry:

Last Name, First Name. Year. Nature or format of communication, Territorial acknowledgment of where the information was shared.