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Two-Spirit & Indigiqueer Studies

Getting Started

Two-Spirit and Indigiqueer Studies is an interdisciplinary field grounded in the languages, cultures, histories, geographies, identities and contemporary experiences of Indigenous peoples in relation to gender and sexual expression.

The term "Two-Spirit" (also stylized as: two spirit, two spirited, Two-Spirit, Two-Spirited or 2Spirit) is a pan-Indigenous term coined in 1990 at the third annual international LGBT Native American gathering in Winnipeg. Originally, Elder Myra Laramee shared the name "Two-Spirit" and it was quickly adopted to replace outdated, offensive language and to distinguish the experience of Indigenous peoples from non-Indigenous peoples. (Source:

Generally Two-Spirit is not a term used interchangeably to refer to Indigenous LGBTQIA+ or Indigiqueer experiences, although these identities may be closely connected for many people. Ceremonial and traditional cultural roles are frequently and exclusively associated with Two-spirit people. Two-Spirit and Indigiqueer work may (or may not) intersect with critical approaches such as decolonization and feminism. 

For more information on Two-Spirit history & people see August 4, 2020 ‘TWO-SPIRIT’ Turns 30!! by Harlan Pruden (August 3, 2020). Pruden also has some Two-Spirit terms you can find here:


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