Author, Title of the Book, edition (place of publication: publisher, year of publication) pinpoint reference if applicable.
Bruce Ziff, Principles of Property Law, 5th ed (Toronto: Carswell, 2010) at 148-155.
HG Beale, ed, Chitty on Contracts: Specific Contracts, vol 2, 30th ed (London, UK: Sweet & Maxwell, 2008).
Note: If a multi-volume work uses the same title for all volumes, treat the volume designation as a pinpoint (see below).
Place of Publication:
Year of Publication:
Use the copyright date of the book unless a specific year of publication is given.
To refer the reader to a specific page or section, add a reference following the publication information.
If a book is published in a loose-leaf format so that it can be updated, it is not fixed in time like a book that has been bound. It is important to let the reader know how current the book was when you consulted it. You will find the records of when the loose-leaf book was updated at either the front or back of the book.
Mr Justice G Peter Fraser, John W Horn & The Honourable Madam Justice Susan A Griffin, The Conduct of Civil Litigation in British Columbia, 2nd ed (Markham, Ont: LexisNexis, 2007) (loose-leaf updated 2014, release 16) vol 2 at para 39.12.
Some books are not written by a single author or group of authors. Rather, an editor (or multiple editors) may compile a collection of essays around a common theme.
Author, “Title of Chapter” in Editor of Book, Title of the Book, edition (place of publication: publisher, year of publication) first page of essay and pinpoint reference if applicable.
Author, “Title of Article” (year) volume:issue | Abbreviation of Journal | first page of the article | pinpoint if applicable.
Some journals are published exclusively in electronic format. Follow this form:
Author, "Title of Article", online: (year) volume:issue | Abbreviation of Journal | first page or number of the article | pinpoint if applicable.
Year of Publication:
Volume and Issue:
First Page of the Article:
A case comment is a special type of journal article. Often, a journal article will comment on a case, and perhaps compare and contrast a case with others, with no mention of the term "case comment." Cite these articles like other journal articles.
Sometimes, an article will actually indicate that it is a case comment. These articles may, or may not, have a title. If the article indicates that it is a case comment, follow these citations rule:
Author, “Title if Applicable”, Case Comment on Case Name, (year) volume:issue | Abbreviation of Journal | first page of the article | pinpoint if applicable.
Note: Do not include the case name if it is part of the article title. Also do not include the term "Case Comment" if it is part of the article title.
Dictionaries are not normally cited, but are used as one begins research to learn the meaning of words and phrases, and to develop a research vocabulary. After the bibliographic information, introduce the word or phrase with sub verbo, which means "under the word." See the following examples.
Commonly Used Dictionaries:
Black’s Law Dictionary, 5th ed, sub verbo “restitution."
Canadian Online Legal Dictionary, sub verbo "Curative provisor," accessed July 11, 2014 <http://www.irwinlaw.com/cold>.
The Dictionary of Canadian Law, 4th ed, sub verbo “estoppel."
The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed, sub verbo “domicile."
Legal encyclopedias are not normally cited, but are used as one begins research to learn about a legal issue and find references to primary sources of law. Examples for the print and electronic versions of the two Canadian encyclopedias follow.
Canadian Encyclopedic Digest (CED):
The CED is currently in its 4th edition (shorten to 4th). The loose-leaf set of the CED is published in two versions - Ontario (Ont) and Western (West). There is an alphabetical arrangement of subjects (known as "titles"). The online version, available via WestlawNext Canada, sometimes refers to the Ontario or Western versions; include this information in your citation if it is provided.
Print: CED (West 4th), vol 49, title 139 at para 460. This citation refers to paragraph 460 under the subject Restitution (title 139), which is found in volume 49 of the set.
Online: CED 4th, Remedies 6.3.f at para 460.
Halsbury’s Laws of Canada:
Halsbury's is currently in its 1st edition but reissues volumes periodically. It is important to include this information in your citation because it is similar to an edition statement. Halsbury's uses an alphabetical arrangement with no volume numbers. Note that in the print version and online version, available via Lexis Advance Quicklaw, a shortened designation for subjects is used. For example, HLP stands for Halsbury's Legal Profession.
Print or Online: Halsbury’s Laws of Canada, Legal Profession (2013 reissue) at para 228.
In this example, it is not necessary to include the designation HLP-228 because all of infomation is provided in the citation, and it is too cryptic for anyone unfamiliar with Halsbury's.