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Dental Hygiene

Citing Sources

For papers in dental hygiene, please use the NLM Citing Medicine style guide. This style is often also referred to as Vancouver Style, the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals, the reference style of the ICMJE, or more recently, Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers.

  • Zotero Citation Manager - use the "National Library of Medicine (grant proposals with PMCID/PMID" style or the "Vancouver superscript" style or another NLM: Citing Medicine style with superscripts

Citing Sources in a Presentation

PowerPoint - Typically you don't need to cite images, backgrounds, etc. that are offered as part of the program that you are using. Eg. images available in PowerPoint

Where to cite in a presentation - You do need to cite all other works that you use so where do you put the citation?

There are two options for where to place your references. The best option is usually to include a short or full citation on the slide where you reference the work. You can then provide a fuller citation at the end of the presentation if needed. An alternative is to cite all references at the end of your presentation on a 'References' slide, but this is less useful for your audience as they often wish to see your sources during the presentation.

Images - see below for more information

Other Citation Styles

Understanding Citations

Parts of a Citation

Parts of a Citation

Finding & Using Images



UBC's Image Citation Guide

Figure or Table Citation Example from

ADAM Editorial Team. Cholecystolithiases [image on the Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institute of Health; 2008 [updated 2010 May 7; cited 2010 Jun 25]. [Figure], Cholecystolithiases: CT scan of the upper abdomen showing multiple gallstones. Available from:

Image Citation Example (format suggested by Helen Brown based on Citing Medicine directions for websites and untitled works)

ProSmile. [Teeth] [image on the Internet]. Pixabay; 2016 Sept 15 [cited 2017 Sept 10]. Available from