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RHSC 501

Levels of Evidence

 

 

Image credit:
Adapted by Charlotte Beck and Suzan Zagar, UBC Library from the EBM Generator. 2012 [online]. Levels of Evidence Pryamid. Available from http://www.dartmouth.edu/~biomed/resources.htmld/guides/images/pyramid5_sliced_20.gif [accessed on 13 February 2012].

Study Designs

Types of Questions (domains) Types of Studies
Therapy RCT
Diagnosis Prospective
Etiology/Harm Cohort, case series
Prognosis Cohort, case series
Prevention RCT
Qualitative Grounded theory, phenomenology

Finding Systematic reviews

  1. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews:
  2. PubMed clinical queries (Tutorial)
  3. Subject specialized:
  4. Critiquing Systematic Reviews
 :

Image credit:
Adapted by Charlotte Beck and Suzan Zagar, UBC Library from the EBM Generator. 2012 [online]. Levels of Evidence Pryamid. Available from http://www.dartmouth.edu/~biomed/resources.htmld/guides/images/pyramid5_sliced_20.gif [accessed on 13 February 2012].

Findng other evidence

Meta search engines

Finding clinical trials:

Subject databases (core for Rehabilitation Sciences)

PsycINFO (EBSCO) For psychologically related issues, including motivation
ERIC (Proquest) Good for materials relating to education and school aged children
Sportdiscus (EBSCO) Sports, exercise, sports physiology
Compendex Engineering Village Equipment, electronic modalities

Image credit:
Adapted by Charlotte Beck and Suzan Zagar, UBC Library from the EBM Generator. 2012 [online]. Levels of Evidence Pryamid. Available from http://www.dartmouth.edu/~biomed/resources.htmld/guides/images/pyramid5_sliced_20.gif [accessed on 13 February 2012].

Finding EBM Resources

Search techniques and Tools for Finding the Evidence

Search strategy process

Efficient searching follows a structured process:

 
 

This work AND animation, by Beck, Charlotte and Zagar, Suzan, identified by UBC Library, is free of known copyright restrictions.

Identify main concepts based on question

 

P

 
Patient/Population
 
Who or What?
 

I

 
Intervention
 
How?
 

C

 
Comparison
 
What is the main alternative (if appropriate)
 

O

 
Outcome
 
What are you trying to accomplish, measure, improve, effect?

 

  The PICO blocks help build a structured, methodological and organized search.

Analyze using PICO worksheet

Use this PICO worksheet to analyze your search strategy:

Decide on search words

Match PICO concepts to search words: subject headings and/or keywords.

Example PICOstatement:
Among (P) stroke patients does the use of (I) Wii improve (O) balance?

      

 

Concept MeSH Keyword

P

Stroke Stroke stroke*
CVA*
cerebrovascular accident*
Cerebral infarction*

I

Wii Video games Wii
videogame*
virtual reality*

O

Balance Postural balance balance
equilibrium

Use SUBJECT HEADINGS

(aka MeSH, descriptors, controlled vocabulary) pull together synonyms and variant spellings and grammar to a single search term or phrase. Identify Subject Heading by using the database thesaurus or headings list. The search engine looks for a match of the subject heading in the subject heading or descriptor field in the record. Additional tools include being able to explode, add subheadings, or limit by the focus or main point.

Use KEYWORDS

(aka key terms) can be any word or phrase. The search engine looks for a match of the same combination of letters (generally) in the title and abstract in bibliographic databases, and on the website or fulltext in Google. In some databases, notably Pubmed, Medline(Ovidsp) and Embase(Ovidsp), the search engine automatically tries to map the keyword to a subject heading. Truncation and wild cards assist with variant spellings and grammar.

Search each concept separately

Build a search strategy of separate result sets for each concept(s)

Combine results sets

Booleans
Form a more detailed explanation.

Example:
babies OR infants finds articles that include either or both concepts
Vitamin C AND colds finds articles with both these concepts

 

This work AND animation, by Zagar, Suzan, identified by UBC Library, is free of known copyright restrictions.

Refine or Add Limits

Limit as appropriate:

  • Population characteristics: gender, age
  • Publication descriptors: date, language, design

Manage results

Select results for export to Refworks:

Save Search Strategies and Set up Alerts

  • Save search history
  • Set up alerts