American Library Association-Library of Congress Japanese Romanization Table
Libraries in North America follow these rules
Used in Japanese institutions.
Although Hepburn romanization is now standard, older materials sometimes have variant romanization. You may miss finding something if you use a different romanization in your search, so try using "OR" searches or the following.
Wildcards and Truncation
Wildcards and truncation may be used in order to catch romanization and spacing issues.
Allows you to search for terms that could have more than one ending.
kaguya? = "kaguya hime" | "kaguyahime".
allows you to substitute 0 or more letters in a word.
na?ba = "nanba" | "namba"
When searching in Japanese, characters placed together without a space will be searched as a compound phrase (e.g. 自然主義). If terms are placed separately (divided by a space, e.g. 自然 [space] 主義), depending on the database, either the search terms are combined by "AND," or the terms are used as alternate search terms (in that case you will need to provide the Boolean operator AND to combine the search terms).
Truncations in searching are understood in the following terms in Japanese databases: 前方一致・中間一致・後方一致.
Use Boolean Logic, which uses special terms called 'operators,' to make your keyword searching powerful.
Example: "kaguya hime" OR kaguyahime
Example: 社会主義 AND 日本
The following diagram describes how the Boolean operators, AND, OR and NOT, work in database searching.
There are a few issues you need to keep in mind when using vernacular characters in searching UBC and some other North American library catalogues. These issues do not affect Summon and WorldCat.
E.g.: 広重 OR 廣重
E.g.: When a search keyword is 江戸, use 江戶