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Persian Language Resources

HAPPY NOWRUZ 1403/2024!



Nowruz is an ancient festival that has evolved and adapted over the centuries. Celebrated by millions of people worldwide, this unique event marks the beginning of the solar year and the arrival of spring. As a rich cultural experience, Nowruz transcends borders, embodying the spirit of renewal, unity, and tradition. In this blog post, we will explore the elements of Nowruz, how it has evolved over time, and what it represents to those who observe it.


The Origins and Elements of Nowruz


Nowruz, meaning "new day" in Persian, is believed to have originated more than 3,000 years ago in ancient Persia, now modern-day Iran. Rooted in Zoroastrianism, the festival has been passed down through generations and is celebrated today by people from diverse cultural backgrounds, including Iranians, Kurds, Afghans, Tajiks, and others.

One of the central elements of Nowruz is the Haft-Seen table, which is meticulously prepared with seven symbolic items, each starting with the letter "S" in Persian. These items typically include:


  1. Sabzeh (sprouts): Symbolizing rebirth and renewal.
  2. Samanu (sweet pudding): Representing affluence and prosperity.
  3. Senjed (dried oleaster fruit): Signifying love and compassion.
  4. Sir (garlic): Denoting health and well-being.
  5. Sib (apple): Representing beauty and vitality.
  6. Somagh (sumac): Symbolizing the sunrise and the triumph of good over evil.
  7. Serkeh (vinegar): Denoting patience and wisdom.


Haft-seen table


The Haft-Seen table is not only adorned with the seven symbolic items starting with the letter "S," but it also includes other elements that hold their own special significance. Among these are the mirror, goldfish, and coins. Each carries a symbolic meaning that contributes to the overall message of renewal and unity embodied by Nowruz.


Mirror: The mirror, often referred to as 'Aayeneh' in Persian, is placed on the Haft-Seen table to represent self-reflection and introspection. It symbolizes the importance of examining one's actions and thoughts, as well as promoting self-awareness and personal growth. The mirror's presence encourages individuals to reflect on the past year and look forward to the future with clarity and a renewed sense of purpose.


Goldfish: Goldfish, or 'Mahi' in Persian, are traditionally included as a symbol of life, fertility, and abundance. Their vibrant colors and constant movement represent the energy and dynamism of the coming year. However, in recent years, there has been a growing awareness of the ethical and environmental implications of keeping goldfish in small containers for the duration of the Nowruz celebrations. As a result, some families have chosen to reduce or eliminate the practice of including goldfish on their Haft-Seen tables. Instead, they may opt for alternative symbols, such as images or sculptures of fish, or choose to donate to environmental or animal welfare organizations as a gesture of respect for the original symbolism.


Coins: Coins, or 'Sekkeh' in Persian, are placed on the Haft-Seen table as a symbol of wealth and prosperity. They signify the hope for financial stability and success in the coming year, and the desire for abundance and good fortune for all those who participate in the Nowruz festivities. In some families, coins may also be given as gifts to children or loved ones, further emphasizing the theme of prosperity and well-being.


The evolving nature of the Haft-Seen table and its elements showcases the adaptability and relevance of Nowruz in today's world. By adjusting practices to align with modern values and concerns, the festival continues to serve as a meaningful and inclusive celebration for people of diverse backgrounds and beliefs.


The Evolution of Nowruz


Throughout its long history, Nowruz has evolved and adapted to the changing cultural, political, and social contexts. Under the rule of the Achaemenid Empire (550-330 BCE), the celebration of Nowruz became an official state holiday, and the tradition was later embraced by the subsequent Persian empires.

With the advent of Islam in the 7th century, Nowruz was initially discouraged due to its pre-Islamic roots. However, it eventually found acceptance in the Islamic world, and its celebration was preserved, often incorporating Islamic elements into the festivities.

In modern times, Nowruz has continued to evolve as it spreads across the globe, adapting to the customs and traditions of the many cultures that celebrate it. In some countries, public celebrations and street festivals mark the occasion, while in others, the focus is on intimate family gatherings.


The Significance of Nowruz


Nowruz is more than just a celebration of the New Year; it represents a confluence of values and ideals that have endured for millennia. The festival is a testament to the resilience of cultural traditions, bringing together people of different backgrounds in a shared appreciation for renewal, unity, and harmony.

In today's interconnected world, Nowruz serves as a reminder of the importance of preserving our cultural heritage, while also fostering dialogue and understanding among different communities. For millions of people worldwide, Nowruz embodies the timeless message of hope and renewal, making it an enduring and meaningful celebration.




As a vibrant and dynamic tradition, Nowruz transcends geographical, cultural, and religious boundaries. Its elements, such as the Haft-Seen table, convey profound symbolism and continue to evolve as the festival adapts to the changing world. Embracing the spirit of renewal, unity, and cultural appreciation, Nowruz is a shining example of how ancient customs can remain relevant and cherished in our modern world.

By celebrating Nowruz, we not only honor the rich history and cultural diversity of the participating communities, but we also join in a collective expression of hope for a brighter future. This ancient festival, which has evolved and persevered through countless generations, serves as a powerful reminder that unity, understanding, and the celebration of life are values that can bring us all closer together, regardless of our individual backgrounds.

As we welcome the arrival of spring and the beginning of a new solar year, let us remember the spirit of Nowruz and strive to carry its message of renewal, unity, and tradition into our daily lives. Happy Nowruz!


This guide provides information on general Persian language resources. The tabs across the top of this guide will direct you to specific reference materials, as well as resources on Persian grammar, vocabulary, and script.

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