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Data and Statistics: Citing Data

This guide helps you get started learning about data and statistics, how to find data and statistics and how to cite them.

Terms of Use & Copyright

Before using a data source in your research, you will need to check if there are any use restrictions. While data itself cannot be copyrighted, any product derived from that data can. This can apply to datasets as a whole, as well as charts and graphs created by online tools. There may also be privacy concerns related to the data itself, which would limit the ways the data can be used and shared. Users should always read the terms and conditions for each data source, especially if they intend to publish their research.

For more information and if you have any questions about copyright, contact the UBC Copyright Office.

Why cite data?

In general, citations (i.e., references) give credit to others for their work and ideas and allow readers to track down the original work if they choose. Citing data has not always been standard practice, especially if it is data you have collected yourself, but as data becomes more and more widely shared, proper attribution is increasingly important. Citing datasets helps them become part of the scholarly record and gives proper credit to the creator of the dataset. It also allows researchers to look at the underlying data supporting your research to build upon your research or attempt to reproduce your results. So don't forget to keep track our where you're getting your data from (as you gather it) and cite it!

How to cite?

Please check out UBC Library How to Cite Data  for the guidance on how to cite data. 

Should you be interested in a very thorough guide to citing data, please check out this one: Ball, A. & Duke, M. (2012). ‘How to Cite Datasets and Link to Publications’. Edinburgh: Digital Curation Centre.   

Statistics Canada has a guide to citing their products and a reference building tool that can help you identify which elements to include for a wide range of data and statistics products. 

The DOI Citation Formatter tool will generate a citation based on a DOI in the citation style of your choice. Make sure to double-check that all of your elements have ended up in the right place!

This guide from SFU shows citation examples in APA style of tables and figures drawing from multiple data sources.

Other Citation Resources