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Indigenous Treaties

An introduction to treaties in BC and Canada, and Métis settlements.

Featured Resource

On The Path of the Elders is an online game and educational resource created in partnership between The Mushkegowuk Council, Mushkegowuk Cree company Neh Naak Ko, Carleton University, BlackCherry Digital Media, and Pinegrove Productions. The resources include an online RPG, teaching resources for grades 4-10, narratives and histories from elders, and an essay exploring the historical times in which Mushkegowuk and Anishinaabe peoples signed Treaty 9, and how it impacted the lives of their people.

Online Resources

Curriculum Resources

Games & Kits

First Nations Treaty Board Game by Hul'qumi'num Treaty Group

Players progress through the six stages of the British Columbia Treaty Process and achieve a final agreement with the federal and provincial governments by being the first player to enter the final circle. They learn the terms used in negotiations as they move from one traditional village to another. Maps locate the villages within the traditional territory. Intended for 5 players, text in Hul'qumi'num and English languages.

Promises, Promises: a Board Game Commemorating the 100th Anniversary of Treaty No. 9 conceived and developed by Kathy Perrault and Jim Hollander

A unique way of emphasizing the significance of the James Bay Treaty in a challenging and educational manner. Intended for youth, public, non-Indigenous public, and schools. For ages 12 to adult, intended for 2-6 players.

Laws and Treaties Edition

Discover the laws and treaties that affect the Indigenous community through this card game; United States context. For ages 8 and up, intended for 2-8 players. 

Indigenous Treaties Edition

Discover the history of the struggle for Indigenous rights through this card game; United States context. For ages 8 and up, intended for 2-8 players.

Wapos Bay: Lights, Camera, Action!

"In this episode from the Wapos Bay series, film star Adam Beach mentors T-Bear and Talon as they make videos celebrating Treaty Days in Wapos Bay. Raven feels left out with everyone so busy preparing for the celebrations. Wapos Bay is a stop-motion animation series that follows the adventures of 3 kids from a Cree community in northern Saskatchewan." - National Film Board


Featured Videos

Heritage Minutes: Naskumituwin (Treaty)

The making of Treaty 9 from the perspective of historical witness George Spence, an 18-year-old Cree hunter from Albany, James Bay. The 83rd Heritage Minute in Historica Canada's collection.

Trick or Treaty?

"This feature documentary by acclaimed filmmaker Alanis Obomsawin (Kanehsatake: 270 Years of Resistance) profiles Indigenous leaders in their quest for justice as they seek to establish dialogue with the Canadian government.

By tracing the history of their ancestors since the signing of Treaty No. 9, these leaders aim to raise awareness about issues vital to First Nations in Canada: respect for and protection of their lands and their natural resources, and the right to hunt and fish so that their societies can prosper." (From National Film Board).

Beginning Your Search - Curriculum Resources at UBC

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  • For audiovisual materials in UBC Archives and selected subject-specific bibliographies of local interest in UBC Bibliographies.

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Keyword Searches and Phrases

Step 1:

Use Simple Keywords:

  • "First Nations"
  • Aboriginal
  • Indigenous
  • "Indians of North America"

For more information on terminology please see Indigenous Foundations

Step 2:

Use the Simple Keywords above with the following techniques to narrow or broaden your search:

a) Truncate: allows you to search for a keyword and variations in spelling of that word.

  • Example: educate, education, educational
  • To truncate:
    • Summon: educat*
    • Catalogue: educat?

b) Boolean: allows you to connect multiple keywords to broaden or narrow your search.

  • Example: Aboriginal AND Treaty (this would narrow your search)
  • Example: Aboriginal OR Treaty (this would broaden your search)
  • Example: Aboriginal NOT Treaty (this would narrow your search)

For more information on Truncating and Boolean searches click here

c) Phrase: allows you to search phrases instead of keywords.

  • Example: "First Nations" rather than First and Nation
  • Example: "Public Education" rather than Public and Education