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Indigenous Treaties

An introduction to treaties in BC and Canada, and Métis settlements.

Related Guides

Métis People in Canada

The Métis people are a distinct nation with their own language, culture, and traditions. For information on Métis identity visit Indigenous Foundations. All Métis settlements in Canada are located in Alberta. See the following resources for more information:

Métis Settlements of Alberta

     (Métis Settlements Flag retrieved from

The Métis Settlements Act of 1990 established the current eight settlements in Alberta. An online copy of the act, current as of June 1, 2015, is available hereThere are eight Métis settlements in Canada, all of which are located in Alberta, including:

  1. Paddle Prairie
  2. Peavine
  3. Gift Lake
  4. East Prairie
  5. Buffalo Lake
  6. Kikino
  7. Elizabeth
  8. Fishing Lake

Each settlement has an elected Settlement Council. All eight councils make up the Métis Settlements General Council (MSGC).

Métis in the North

In the Yukon 

In the Northwest Territories

Selected Resources & Media

Métis Rights by Thomas Isaac

A. Introduction 
B. Who are the Métis? 
C. Métis rights 
D. Federal developments 
E. Provincial and territorial developments 
F. Conclusion

Click for more in-depth table of contents.

Indian Reserves and Aboriginal Lands in Canada: a Homeland: a Study in Law and History by Richard H. Bartlett

This comprehensive study of the law and history of land claims of Indian, Metis and Inuit peoples in Canada traces the development of the law from early settlement to current concerns and includes a table of cases and a table of authorities.

The Forgotten People: Métis and Non-Status Indian Land Claims

Published by Ottawa Native Council of Canada 1979. Métis history, law and legistlation, and land claims.

Book pile

Select Annotated Bibliography on Metis History and Claims by D. Madill.

"Until recently, most Canadians associated the Métis with Louis Riel's activities in Red River and the District of Saskatchewan. Over the past decade regional history has enjoyed a revival and a new generation of historians has substantially enriched the literature on western history in general and Métis historiography in particular. The removal from London to Winnipeg of the Hudson's Bay Company's rich archival sources in 1974 has enabled historians to re-examine Métis history and move forward to a wider range of topics and disciplines."--Introduction